|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 280-283
Transversus abdominis plane block versus local anesthetic wound infiltration in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair surgery
Ahmed M Abd El-Hamid MD , Ehab E Afifi
Department of Anesthesia and ICU, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
|Date of Submission||14-Aug-2015|
|Date of Acceptance||29-Oct-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||11-May-2016|
Ahmed M Abd El-Hamid
Department of Anesthesia and ICU, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, 20 Ezz Eldin Omar St., Elharam, Giza, 12111
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
This study aimed to compare the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block versus wound infiltration in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair.
Patients and methods
A total of 60 male patients scheduled for open unilateral inguinal hernia repair under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two equal groups: group W received wound infiltration with 0.2 ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine at the site of incision, and group T received ultrasound-guided TAP block with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine. Time to first analgesic request, total morphine requirement over 24 h, and visual analogue pain score at rest and during cough were assessed over the course of 24 h.
Total morphine requirement during the first 24 h was significantly less in group T. A total of 21 patients in group W required supplemental morphine compared with 13 patients in group T. Time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in group T. Patients receiving TAP block had significantly lower pain scores at rest for 12 h and on cough for 6 h after operation when compared with patients who received wound infiltration.
TAP block provided more reliable and effective analgesia and less total 24-h postoperative morphine consumption compared with wound infiltration with the local anesthetic.
Keywords: local wound infiltration, open inguinal hernia repair, transversus abdominis plane block
|How to cite this article:|
Abd El-Hamid AM, Afifi EE. Transversus abdominis plane block versus local anesthetic wound infiltration in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair surgery. Ain-Shams J Anaesthesiol 2016;9:280-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Abd El-Hamid AM, Afifi EE. Transversus abdominis plane block versus local anesthetic wound infiltration in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair surgery. Ain-Shams J Anaesthesiol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Dec 3];9:280-3. Available from: http://www.asja.eg.net/text.asp?2016/9/2/280/182269
| Introduction|| |
Postoperative pain management is of great importance in perioperative anesthetic care . The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a regional anesthesia technique that provides analgesia to the parietal peritoneum as well as the skin and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall . It has been shown to be a safe and effective postoperative adjunct analgesia method in a variety of surgical procedures and it is suggested as part of the multimodal anesthetic approach to enhance recovery after lower abdominal surgeries . Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of TAP block in providing postoperative analgesia for up to 24 h after lower abdominal surgery .
Local anesthetic wound infiltration is also a commonly used method for reducing postoperative pain. Postoperative pain relief can be obtained by means of single injection of local anesthesia into the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer at surgical incision sites, which could decrease the pain scores postoperatively .
The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided TAP block versus wound infiltration in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair.
| Patients and methods|| |
This study was conducted in Benha University Hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015. After local ethical committee approval and patient's informed written consent, this prospective randomized comparative clinical trial was conducted on 60 male patients of ASA physical status I and II scheduled for open unilateral inguinal hernia repair under general anesthesia. Patients were allocated randomly using sealed envelopes, according to a computer-generated sequence of random numbers, into two equal groups.
Group W received wound infiltration with 0.2 ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine at the site of incision after induction of general anesthesia and before start of surgical procedure.
Group T received ultrasound-guided TAP block with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine on the same side as the hernia after induction of general anesthesia and before start of surgical procedure.
Exclusion criteria were as follows: inability to consent to the study; skin infection at the puncture site; chest diseases; hepatic, renal, or coagulation disorders; or contraindication to any of the drugs used during the study.
One hour before surgery after insertion of venous access, all patients received premedication in the form of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg of midazolam. Perioperative monitoring included ECG, pulse oximetry, noninvasive arterial blood pressure, capnography, and temperature monitoring. General anesthesia was induced using 1.5-2.5 mg/kg of propofol, 0.5 mg/kg of atracurium to facilitate endotracheal intubation, and 2 mg/kg of fentanyl. Anesthesia was maintained using isoflurane (1 MAC), and atracurium supplements were given every 20 min to maintain muscle relaxation.
TAP block was performed under ultrasound guidance using SonoSite M Turbo (SonoSite, USA) with linear multifrequency 6-13 MHz transducer (L25 × 13-6 MHz linear array) scanning probe. Under complete aseptic condition and with the patient in the supine position, the TAP block was performed laterally behind the midaxillary line between the iliac crest and the subcostal margin. The plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscle was located around the midaxillary line with the probe transverse to the abdomen. Anteriorly, the needle (Stimuplex D needles; B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) was passed to come perpendicular to the ultrasound beam and placed between transversus and internal oblique posterior to the midaxillary line. Thereafter, the local anesthetic was injected.
At the end of surgical procedure, anesthesia was discontinued and muscle relaxant reversed using 0.05 mg/kg of neostigmine and 0.02 mg/kg of atropine. Thereafter, patients were extubated and transferred to the postanesthesia care unit. An independent anesthesiologist conducted postoperative assessments and was not aware of group allocation. Rescue analgesia was given with morphine 3 mg intravenous boluses on demand, or whenever visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was 4 or greater.
The duration of surgery (the time from skin incision until the removal of surgical drapes), time to first analgesic request (the time from patient's arrival to the postanesthesia care unit until a VAS>4), total morphine requirement over 24 h, number of patients requiring analgesia, and visual analogue pain score (at rest and during cough) at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were assessed over the course of 24 h.
- Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).
- Quantitative data were presented as a mean and SD and were analyzed using Student's t-test.
- Qualitative data were presented as number and percentages and were analyzed using the c2 and Z tests.
- Visual analogue score was presented as median and interquartile range and was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test.
- A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant, and a P-value less than 0.01 was considered statistically highly significant.
- Sample size was calculated according to a pilot study from the first eight patients at a error 0.05 and 80% power. Assuming 30% decrease in the total morphine consumption, the calculated effect size was 0.709. Thirty patients were required for each group.
| Results|| |
A total of 80 patients were screened during the study period. Of them, 11 patients did not match the inclusion criteria, five patients refused to participate, and one patient was excluded as he had bronchial asthma. A total of 63 patients were included in the study, but three more patients were excluded shortly thereafter because two patients were discharged before 24 h and one patient developed postoperative chest pains. Thus, 60 patients completed the study protocol [Figure 1].
All patients were similar with respect to patient demographic characteristics, ASA physical status, and duration of surgery [Table 1].
Total morphine requirement during the first 24 h was significantly less in group T compared with group W. A total of 21 patients in group W required supplemental morphine, whereas only 13 patients in group T required supplemental morphine. Time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in group T than in group W [Table 1].
Patients receiving TAP block had significantly lower pain scores at rest for 12 h and on cough for 6 h after operation compared with patients who received wound infiltration [Table 2] and [Table 3].
| Discussion|| |
Postoperative analgesia is one of the main concerns of both the surgeons and the patients. Multiple methods have been put into use to achieve this goal, such as local anesthetic infiltration, epidural analgesia, peripheral nerve block, and patient-controlled analgesia .
Several studies have documented that TAP block provided effective postoperative analgesia during the first 24 h following lower abdominal surgical procedures [6-9].
VAS pain score, considered the gold standard of pain quantification, was used to evaluate the severity of postoperative pain at rest and during cough.
The present study found that there was a significantly lower pain score in the TAP group at 12 h postoperatively compared with the wound infiltration group. Total morphine consumption was less in the TAP group. The number of patients who required supplemental morphine was less in TAP block. Time to first analgesic request was longer in the TAP group. This is consistent with the results of Sivapurapu et al. , who compared the analgesic efficacy of TAP block with that of direct infiltration of local anesthetic into surgical incision in lower abdominal gynecological procedures under general anesthesia. Time to rescue analgesic was significantly longer and the VAS scores were lower in the TAP group. The 24 h morphine requirement and the incidence of side effects were less in the TAP group. In a meta-analysis conducted by Mishriky et al. , they reported that TAP block significantly reduced opioid consumption and reduced pain scores for up to 12 h postoperatively.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of 64 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair, Salman et al.  found that TAP block provided effective analgesia, reducing total 24-h postoperative analgesic consumption and morphine requirement.
| Conclusion|| |
We conclude that ultrasound-guided TAP block provided more reliable and effective analgesia and lower total 24-h postoperative morphine consumption compared with local anesthetic wound infiltration.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]